Discrimination on the Basis of Racial or Ethnic Origin
Direct and indirect discrimination as well as harassment and incitement to discriminate on grounds of racial or ethnic origin (including skin colour, ethnic and national origin and nationality) shall be prohibited:
- in all areas of public law;
- employment (including access to information on vacancies; selection criteria for recruitment and recruitment process itself; promotion; working conditions; remuneration; termination of employment);
- in the performance of scientific activities;
- vocational training (including retraining, upskilling and practical work experience);
- membership of professional organisations or trade unions (including benefits granted by such organisations);
- education (including further education);
- protecting the rights of the child;
- in social security;
- the protection of rights and legitimate interests;
- in health care;
- access to goods and services, including legal aid and the right to housing;
- in advertising.
The prohibition of discrimination applies both to relations between the State and the individual and to the sphere of private law. For example, direct discrimination will occur if the landlord refuses to rent an apartment to a person of African descent or if the owner of the real estate refuses to sell their property to a Chechen.
Discrimination on the basis of race, ethnic origin, national or religious affiliation shall be criminally punishable, if a violation of Section 78 of the Criminal Law has been committed – an act directed towards triggering national, ethnic, racial or religious hatred or enmity.